Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is one of the most powerful means for direct determination of thermodynamic information associated with most physiochemical and biological processes. The deposition and aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) on cell membranes was considered as one of the primary factors in having Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that plasma membrane could accelerate the accumulation of Aβ on the plasma membranes. However, the mechanism of AD is still a controversial issue. This study provided a biothermodynamic approach to real-time monitor the heat of metabolism involved in the co-incubation of PC12 cells and Aβ(1-40) by ITC. The effects of Aβ conformation and concentration of oligomeric Aβ on cytotoxicity were successfully distinguished by ITC. This approach with rapid and direct measurement may provide not only real-time information for the effects of Aβ species on living cells but also a platform for the screening of drug candidates for AD.