Sonodynamic therapy is an effective treatment for eliminating tumor cells by irradiating sonosentitizer in a patient’s body with higher penetration ultrasound and inducing the free radicals. Titanium dioxide has attracted the most attention due to its properties among many nanosensitizers. Hence, in this study, carbon doped titanium dioxide, one of inorganic materials, is applied to avoid the foregoing, and furthermore, carbon doped titanium dioxide is used to generate ROS under ultrasound irradiation to eliminate tumor cells. Spherical carbon doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles are synthesized by the sol-gel process. The forming of C-Ti-O bond may also induce defects in lattice which would be beneficial for the phenomenon of sonoluminescence to improve the effectiveness of sonodynamic therapy. By dint of DCFDA, WST-1, LDH and the Live/Dead test, carbon doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles are shown to be a biocompatible material which may induce ROS radicals to suppress the proliferation of 4T1 breast cancer cells under ultrasound treatment. From in vivo study, carbon doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles activated by ultrasound may inhibit the growth of the 4T1 tumor, and it showed a significant difference between sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and the other groups on the seventh day of the treatment.