The main problems of remote sensing of the Earth's surface within the frequency range 1.2-1.6 GHz are discussed. They are related to the resonant quantum properties of the radio wave propagation medium in the lower ionosphere. It is shown that, for the passive remote sensing, the main source is incoherent microwave radiation of the D and E ionospheric layers in the decimeter range. For the first time, a theoretically grounded principally new scheme of measurements is suggested. The scheme assumes that the radiation source exists below the satellite orbit and accounts for the fact that two types of radiation (direct and reflected) reach the satellite sensor. The separation of the respective fluxes is a serious problem that should be solved for the correct interpretation of the measurements. The question is raised regarding the correct calibration of measuring equipment, depending on the current state of the ionosphere.