With the advent of Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) technologies, distance education (e-learning or Web-based learning) has enabled a new era of education. There are a number of issues that have significant impact on distance education, including those from educational, sociological, and psychological perspectives. Rather than attempting to cover exhaustively all the related perspectives, in this survey article, we focus on the technological issues. A number of technology issues are discussed, including distributed learning, collaborative learning, distributed content management, mobile and situated learning, and multimodal interaction and augmented devices for e-learning. Although we have tried to include the state-of-the-art technologies and systems here, it is anticipated that many new ones will emerge in the near future. As such, we point out several emerging issues and technologies that we believe are promising, for the purpose of highlighting important directions for future research.