Liver fibrosis is generally preceded by various liver injuries and often leads to chronic liver diseases and even cirrhosis. Therefore, a liver fibrosis animal model is the cornerstone for the development of therapeutic strategies for hepatic diseases. Although administration of hepatotoxic substances and/or bile duct ligation have been widely performed to construct the in vivo model over the last decades, they are seriously hindered by time-consuming protocols, high mortality, and instability, indicating that an effective and safe approach for the induction of liver fibrosis is still urgently needed nowadays. In this study, we have developed asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-targeted lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles named ALPNPs for establishing an animal model of liver fibrosis. The ALPNPs are characterized as having a spherical nanostructure with size of 182.9 ± 8.89 nm and surface charge of -8.3 ± 1.48 mV. An anti-ASGPR antibody bound to the surface of the nanoparticles with a crosslinking efficiency of 95.03% allows ALPNPs to have hepatocyte-binding specificity. In comparison to free LPSs, the ALPNPs can induce higher aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin concentrations in plasma, reduce the blood flow rate in the portal system and the kidneys, and increase vascular resistance in the liver, kidneys, and collateral shunting vasculature. Based on histological and RNA-seq analyses, the ALPNPs can provide similar capability on inducing hepatic inflammation and fibrosis compared to free LPS but possess higher liver targetability than the naked drug. In addition, the ALPNPs are less toxic in organs other than the liver in comparison to free LPS, demonstrating that the ALPNPs do not elicit off-target effects in vivo. Given the aforementioned efficacies with other merits such as biocompatibility and drug release controllability provided by PLGA, we anticipate that the developed ALPNPs are highly applicable in establishing animal models of liver fibrosis in pre-clinical studies.