Syntactic priming of Chinese nouns and verbs was investigated in word recognition (cued shadowing of auditory targets) and production (picture naming). Disyllabic compound words were presented after syntactically congruent, incongruent, or neutral auditory contexts, with a zero delay between offset of the context and onset of the target. Significant priming was observed in both tasks, including facilitation as well as inhibition. Post hoc analyses showed that reaction times were also affected by sublexical variables that are especially relevant for Chinese, including syllable density (number of word types and tokens in the language with the same first or second syllable) and semantic transparency (whether the meaning of the whole word is predictable from the separate meanings of the two syllables within the compound). These patterns suggest competitive effects at the sublexical level. Implications for interactive models of lexical access are discussed.