As a result of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, numerous countries have become highly interested in sustainability. Manufacturers have been triggered to develop sustainable supply chain strategies in consideration of their value-added processes and stakeholders. This study was conducted, in the context of small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry, in order to examine the relationship between sustainability and business performance from the perspective of the supply chain aspects of business cooperation, operation integration, and enterprise commitment. A total of 290 companies were surveyed and structural equation modeling was applied to analyze the figures from the samples. The results reveal that the implementation of sustainable practices in the context of enterprise commitments, supply chain cooperation, and operation integration has a positive impact on sustainability and business performance. Furthermore, in high-value manufacturing, supply chain cooperation significantly affects sustainable business performance through internal operation integration. These results may serve as a reference for the realization of supply chain sustainability in small-and medium-sized enterprises.