In this article, the polarization-conversion effects of a gammadion-shaped metasurface in transmission and reflection modes are discussed. In our experiment, the polarization-conversion effect of a gammadion-shaped metasurface is investigated because of the contribution of the phase and amplitude anisotropies. According to our experimental and simulated results, the polarization property of the first-order transmitted diffraction is dominated by linear anisotropy and has weak depolarization; the first-order reflected diffraction exhibits both linear and circular anisotropies and has stronger depolarization than the transmission mode. These results are different from previously published research. The Mueller matrix ellipsometer and polar decomposition method will aid in the investigation of the polarization properties of other nanostructures.