We have reviewed the mutagenicity of benzidine analogues (including benzidine-based dyes), with a primary emphasis on evaluating results of the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. Many of these amines are mutagenic in tester strains TA98 and TA100 but require exogenous mammalian activation (S9) for activity. A few amines with halogen or nitro-groups in the structure are direct-acting mutagens. The addition of a sulfonic acid moiety to the molecule of benzidine reduced the mutagenicity of benzidine; whereas, methoxy, chloro, or methyl group additions did not. Complexation with a metal ion also decreased the mutagenicity. A substitution of an alkyl group on the ortho position next to an amine group also influenced the mutagenicity. Most carcinogenic benzidine analogues are mutagenic, and their metabolism to electrophiles that interact with DNA, leading to mutations, plays a central role in their carcinogenesis.