Flat optics, metasurfaces, metalenses, and related materials promise novel on-demand light modulation within ultrathin layers at wavelength scale, enabling a plethora of next-generation optical devices, also known as metadevices. Metadevices designed with different materials have been proposed and demonstrated for different applications, and the mass production of metadevices is necessary for metadevices to enter the consumer electronics market. However, metadevice manufacturing processes are mainly based on electron beam lithography, which exhibits low productivity and high costs for mass production. Therefore, processes compatible with standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor manufacturing techniques that feature high productivity, such as i-line stepper and nanoimprint lithography, have received considerable attention. This paper provides a review of current metasurfaces and metadevices with a focus on materials and manufacturing processes. We also provide an analysis of the relationship between the aspect ratio and efficiency of different materials.