Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has resulted in various environmental issues. Therefore, development of effective VOC removal technology is essential for reducing the adverse effects associated. This work provides a systematic review on VOC removal from gas stream via catalytic oxidation, plasma degradation, and plasma catalysis. For catalytic oxidation of VOCs, possible reaction mechanisms and how physicochemical properties of catalyst influences catalytic performance are presented and discussed, followed by plasma removal of VOCs, VOC degradation, and byproduct formation mechanisms. Next, interactions between plasma and catalyst are interpreted for comprehensive understanding. Last, perspectives are provided for further development of VOC removal technology.