Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are key factors for tumor generation and metastasis. We investigated a filtration method to enhance CSCs (CICs) from colon carcinoma HT-29 cells and primary colon carcinoma cells derived from patient colon tumors using poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid)/silk screen (PLGA/SK) filters. The colon carcinoma cell solutions were permeated via porous filters to obtain a permeation solution. Then, the cell cultivation media were permeated via the filters to obtain the recovered solution, where the colon carcinoma cells that adhered to the filters were washed off into the recovered solution. Subsequently, the filters were incubated in the culture media to obtain the migrated cells via the filters. Colon carcinoma HT-29 cells with high tumorigenicity, which might be CSCs (CICs), were enhanced in the cells in the recovered solution and in the migrated cells based on the CSC (CIC) marker expression, colony-forming unit assay, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) production. Although primary colon carcinoma cells isolated from colon tumor tissues contained fibroblast-like cells, the primary colon carcinoma cells were purified from fibroblast-like cells by filtration through PLGA/SK filters, indicating that the filtration method is effective in purifying primary colon carcinoma cells.