This chapter aims to describe past changes as well as the current status of primary science education in Taiwan. We begin with an overview of science education in Taiwan followed by an overview of the local science curriculum and textbooks, the focus of current primary science teaching, primary science teacher education and professional development, and finally assessment issues. In Taiwan, a new curriculum guideline will be implemented in 2019. Current primary science teaching in Taiwan is focusing on various teaching and learning approaches, such as inquiry and hands-on learning, science reading, outdoor education, and maker education. The science textbooks are no longer centrally controlled, but the quality of primary science textbooks is a crucial issue worth noticing by science educators and the government. To respond to the huge challenges of national competence in the knowledge economy era, primary science teachers in Taiwan have been required to have science expertise accreditation since 2018. In recent years, Taiwanese primary science teachers have been encouraged to utilize formative assessment and portfolio assessment for evaluating students’ science learning. At the end of the chapter, further directions for improving the primary science education in Taiwan are also discussed.