Does outward investment induce more domestic innovation or simply move local innovative efforts to foreign plants? This question is topical and relevant to Taiwan in view of its large share of outward investment concentrated in China and the special political relationship between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of outward investment in China on domestic innovative activity in Taiwan. Overall, this study finds that a positive relationship exists between outward investment and innovation in terms of R&D intensity and patents, implying that investing in China is part of a global resource allocation strategy of Taiwanese multinational enterprises to allocate production in China and pay more attention to innovative activity in their domestic plants. Moreover, the deregulation of the policy regarding investing in China in 2001 has induced an upsurge in investment in China, although it does not seem to have brought about an outflow of technologies.