CONSTANS (CO) and CONSTANS-like (COL) genes play important roles in coalescing signals from photoperiod and temperature pathways. However, the mechanism of CO and COLs involved in regulating the developmental stage transition and photoperiod/temperature senescing remains unclear. In this study, we identified a COL ortholog gene from the Taiwan native orchid Phalaenopsis aphrodite. The Phalaenopsis aphrodite CONSTANS-like 1 (PaCOL1) belongs to the B-box protein family and functions in the nucleus and cytosol. Expression profile analysis of Phalaenopsis aphrodite revealed that PaCOL1 was significantly expressed in leaves, but its accumulation was repressed during environmental temperature shifts. We found a differential profile for PaCOL1 accumulation, with peak accumulation at late afternoon and at the middle of the night. Arabidopsis with PaCOL1 overexpression showed earlier flowering under short-day (SD) conditions (8 h/23◦C light and 16 h/23◦C dark) but similar flowering time under long-day (LD) conditions (16 h/23◦C light and 8 h/23◦C dark). Transcriptome sequencing revealed several genes upregulated in PaCOL1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants that were previously involved in flowering regulation of the photoperiod pathway. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis revealed that PaCOL1 could interact with a crucial clock-associated regulator, AtCCA1, and a flowering repressor, AtFLC. Furthermore, expressing PaCOL1 in cca1.lhy partially reversed the mutant flowering time under photoperiod treatment, which confirms the role of PaCOL1 function in the rhythmic associated factors for modulating flowering.