The proposed total internal reflection (TIR)-based technique can be used for measuring the refractive index of lenses. Distribution of the phase difference between the s- and p-polarization states of the reflected light induced by TIR can be obtained by a polarization camera. The refractive index of the lens can be determined from the detected maximum phase difference, with the specific measurement equation. Only the maximum phase difference needs to be measured. Information about the incident angle, thickness of the lens, and the matching liquid is not needed. The experimental results demonstrate that the resolution of the system can reach 4.8×10-4 RIU.