We report the results of a study on the movement of the solar wind diamagnetic structure (DS), which is a sequence of smaller-scale microDS being part of the May 18, 2013 coronal mass ejection, from a source on the Sun to Earth’s surface. DS determined from the high negative correlation coefficient (r=–0.9) between the IMF modulus (B) and the SW density (N) on the ACE and Wind satellites at the L1 point, on the THB and THC satellites (r=–0.9) in near-Earth orbit, and on the THA satellite inside the magnetosphere is carried by the solar wind from the Sun to Earth’s orbit, while maintaining its fine internal structure. Having a large size in the radial direction (≈763 RE, where RE is the Earth radius), DS flows around the magnetosphere. At the same time, microDS of size ≤13 RE passes through the bow shock and magnetopause as a magnetized plasmoid in which the ion concentration increases from 10 cm–3 to 90 cm–3, and the velocity decreases as it moves toward the magnetotail. When a microDS passes through the magnetopause, a pulsed electric field of ~400 mV/m is generated with subsequent oscillations with a period of T~200 s and an amplitude of ~50 mV/m. The electric field accelerates charged particles of the radiation belt and produces modulated fluxes of protons in an energy range 95–575 keV on the day side and electrons in 40–475 keV and protons in 95–575 keV on the night side. In the duskside magnetosphere (19–23 MLT), the substorm activation is observed in geomagnetic pulsations and auroras, but without a magnetic negative bay. In the post-midnight sector (01–05 MLT), a sawtooth substorm occurs without the growth phase and breakup with deep modulation of the ionospheric current and auroral absorption. The duration of all phenomena in the magnetosphere and on Earth is determined by the period of interaction between DS and the magnetosphere (~4 hrs). To interpret the regularities of the magnetospheric response to the interaction with DS, we consider alternative models of the impulsive passage of DS from SW to the magnetosphere and the classical model of reconnection of IMF and the geomagnetic field.