TY - JOUR

T1 - Instantaneous equilibrium transition for Brownian systems under time-dependent temperature and potential variations

T2 - Reversibility, heat and work relations, and fast isentropic process

AU - Jun, Yonggun

AU - Lai, Pik Yin

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 authors. Published by the American Physical Society.

PY - 2021/9

Y1 - 2021/9

N2 - The theory of constructing instantaneous equilibrium (ieq) transition under arbitrary time-dependent temperature and potential variation for a Brownian particle is developed. It is shown that it is essential to consider the underdamped dynamics for temperature-changing transitions. The ieq is maintained by a time-dependent auxiliary position and momentum potential, which can be calculated for given time-dependent transition protocols. Explicit analytic results are derived for the work and heat statistics, energy, and entropy changes for harmonic and non-harmonic trapping potential with arbitrary time-dependent potential parameters and temperature protocols. Numerical solutions of the corresponding Langevin dynamics are computed to confirm the theoretical results. Although ieq transition of the reverse process is not the time-reversal of the ieq transition of the forward process due to the odd-parity of controlling parameters, their phase-space distribution functions restore the time-reversal symmetry, and hence the energy and entropy changes of the ieq of the reverse process are simply the negative of that of the forward process. Furthermore, it is shown that it is possible to construct an ieq transition that has zero entropy change at a finite transition rate, i.e., a fast ieq isentropic process, and is further demonstrated by explicit Langevin dynamics simulations. Our theory provides fundamental building blocks for designing controlled microscopic heat engine cycles. Implications for constructing an efficient Brownian heat engine are also discussed.

AB - The theory of constructing instantaneous equilibrium (ieq) transition under arbitrary time-dependent temperature and potential variation for a Brownian particle is developed. It is shown that it is essential to consider the underdamped dynamics for temperature-changing transitions. The ieq is maintained by a time-dependent auxiliary position and momentum potential, which can be calculated for given time-dependent transition protocols. Explicit analytic results are derived for the work and heat statistics, energy, and entropy changes for harmonic and non-harmonic trapping potential with arbitrary time-dependent potential parameters and temperature protocols. Numerical solutions of the corresponding Langevin dynamics are computed to confirm the theoretical results. Although ieq transition of the reverse process is not the time-reversal of the ieq transition of the forward process due to the odd-parity of controlling parameters, their phase-space distribution functions restore the time-reversal symmetry, and hence the energy and entropy changes of the ieq of the reverse process are simply the negative of that of the forward process. Furthermore, it is shown that it is possible to construct an ieq transition that has zero entropy change at a finite transition rate, i.e., a fast ieq isentropic process, and is further demonstrated by explicit Langevin dynamics simulations. Our theory provides fundamental building blocks for designing controlled microscopic heat engine cycles. Implications for constructing an efficient Brownian heat engine are also discussed.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85115889531&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.3.033130

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.3.033130

M3 - 期刊論文

AN - SCOPUS:85115889531

SN - 2643-1564

VL - 3

JO - Physical Review Research

JF - Physical Review Research

IS - 3

M1 - 033130

ER -