Initiation, movement, and run-out of the giant Tsaoling landslide - What can we learn from a simple rigid block model and a velocity-displacement dependent friction law?

Che Ming Yang, Wei Lun Yu, Jia Jyun Dong, Chih Yu Kuo, Toshihiko Shimamoto, Chyi Tyi Lee, Tetsuhiro Togo, Yuki Miyamoto

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻期刊論文同行評審

51 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)


Tsaoling landslide is the largest and best documented landslide among several large landslides induced by the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. Pliocene sedimentary rocks of about 125Mm3 in volume slid along very flat bedding planes dipping by 14° with an average speed of 35-40m/s for about 1650m, before hitting the bank of the Chinshui River during the landslide. Detailed analysis of DTMs before and after the earthquake using a GIS software leads to an accurate determination of the locations of the centroids of landslide mass, revealing the horizontal and vertical displacements of the 2524m and 524m, respectively. Those displacements and landslide mass give an apparent friction coefficient of 0.21 and the release of the potential energy of 1.6×1015J. We conducted rotary-shear high-velocity friction experiments on fault gouge from bedding-parallel faults under semi-wet conditions and at 3MPa normal stress corresponding to the overburden pressure of the landslide mass. We also compiled reported data on the frictional properties on shale powders and fault gouge from the landslide site under both dry and wet conditions, and proposed a velocity-displacement dependent friction law that can describe most experimental data. Newmark analysis of landslide motion with six scenarios for different landslide materials and conditions, assuming a simple rigid block sliding and using measured frictional parameters, revealed that the landslide did not occur with dry frictional properties, and that the landslide occurred at 38-39s with accumulated displacements of 0.62m-1.09m and reached at the river bank at 82-87s after the generation of Chi-Chi earthquake at its epicenter. Those timings are consistent with high-frequency signals at 32-40s and at 76s recorded at a nearby seismic station and with a survivor's witness that the landslide initiated 10s after he felt strong ground motion, possible S wave arrival at 25.2s. Slip-weakening is essential in initiating the landslide and low friction coefficient (0.08-0.1) allowed high-speed of the landslide possible. The landslide was caused by a few peaks of northeast-oriented strong accelerations of the ground motion. Frictional work during the sliding of the landslide mass was estimated to be of about 23% of potential energy, and the rest of the released energy is likely to have been consumed during the stopping phase of the landslide after hitting the river bank in complex processes such as fragmentation, heat dissipation, and spreading of the landslide deposits.

頁(從 - 到)158-181
期刊Engineering Geology
出版狀態已出版 - 9 11月 2014


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