This paper establishes an industrial upgrading model by dividing the industrial upgrading process into two: the foundation–construction and industrial upgrading stages. Eighty-one sample countries, from 2006 to 2012, were divided into two groups according to their degree of market freedom. The meta-frontier method was employed to explore technology gaps in the groups caused by the different markets. It was found that emerging economies with a free market have a better upgrading performance than those with a restricted market, and the efficiency gap between the two groups was seen to be continually increasing.
|頁（從 - 到）||1084-1095|
|期刊||Managerial and Decision Economics|
|出版狀態||已出版 - 1 9月 2020|