Breast cancer remains the most frequently diagnosed cancer and is the leading cause of neoplastic disease burden for females worldwide, suggesting that effective therapeutic and/or diagnostic strategies are still urgently needed. In this study, a type of indocyanine green (ICG) and camptothecin (CPT) co-loaded perfluorocarbon double-layer nanocomposite named ICPNC was developed for detection and photochemotherapy of breast cancer. The ICPNCs were designed to be surface modifiable for on-demand cell targeting and can serve as contrast agents for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT). Upon near infrared (NIR) irradiation, the ICPNCs can generate a significantly increased production of singlet oxygen compared to free ICG, and offer a comparable cytotoxicity with reduced chemo-drug dosage. Based on the results of animal study, we further demonstrated that the ICPNCs ([ICG]/[CPT] = 40-/7.5-µM) in association with 1-min NIR irradiation (808 nm, 6 W/cm2) can provide an exceptional anticancer effect to the MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice whereby the tumor size was significantly reduced by 80% with neither organ damage nor systemic toxicity after a 21-day treatment. Given a number of aforementioned merits, we anticipate that the developed ICPNC is a versatile theranostic nanoagent which is highly promising to be used in the clinic.