Numerous studies employed remote sensing techniques on regional air quality in terms of aerosols, in particular, the observations from polar-orbiting satellites offer more detail on spatial distribution. Since the air pollutants/aerosols dramatically vary in location with time, diurnal observations on a timescale are restricted by the temporal resolution of the polar-orbiting satellite. To address this issue, this research proposes a spatially and temporally adaptive reflectance fusion model for measuring atmospheric properties to synthesize high-spatial-temporal resolution images from polar and geostationary satellite imagery for air quality monitoring. The reflectivity from short-wave infrared is employed to preserve the atmospheric effect within the fused image in the green band for further aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval. Taking the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager as the reference, the spatial resolution of the Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (in kilometers) can thus be resampled into 30 m every 10 min during the daytime, by considering the surface bidirectional reflectivity from the variation of the solar zenith angle. The AOD retrieved with fused images containing atmospheric effect could have a better performance after comparison with in situ measurements, and therefore, be suggested for high-spatial-temporal aerosol monitoring.