This paper aims to identify the causes and sources of erosion and deposition at small estuaries in southern central Vietnam under human intervention. The jetty built at the Tam Quan river mouth (Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam) serves as the base for the study. After its completion at the end of 2009, the hydrodynamic and erosion-deposition processes in the region have been significantly altered. Inside the estuary, the waves are not influenced, but the currents are increased during the ebb tide period and decreased during the flood tide timeframe. During the southwest monsoon, the jetty could cause an increase in the deposition process in both frequency and area, whereas the erosion process tends to narrow the area and increase the frequency on the north coast. In contrast, both deposition and erosion processes are increased on the southern coast. About 5859 m3 of sediments are deposited in the channel gate mainly by local sources. During the northeast monsoon, both deposition and erosion processes are located over a narrow area with frequency increased on the north coast, whereas the deposition process is narrowed with higher frequency on the southern coast. The total amount of sediment deposited at the estuary is 56,446 m3, of which 74.2% is from the onsite erosion material, 15.8% from the river and 10% from the longshore transportation. Generally, due to mainly erosion-deposition processes, sediment volume is accumulated during the northeast monsoon with amount 9.6 times more than that the southwest monsoon. The erosion-deposition processes are contributed to by poor practical management and local human activities inland and in the coastal regions, as well as the natural situation, resulting in serious impacts on society, the economy and the environment. Hence, the governance of the erosion-deposition processes and sediment load in small estuaries appear to contribute to the master plan for the local sustainable development of society and the economy.