Inorganic perovskite quantum dots (IPQDs) such as cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br and I) quantum dots have attracted much attention for developing cadmium-free quantum light-emitting displays (QLEDs) based on outstanding light emission properties including narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM), tunable bandgap and ultrahigh (>90%) photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY). Nevertheless, their poor stability under ambient conditions, at high temperature or under continuous light irradiation is the main problem for practical applications. In this study, a new method is proposed to effectively stabilize CsPbBr3 IPQDs by synthesizing them with sulfate-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) at room temperature without using traditional quantum dot stabilizers such as oleylamine (OLA) and oleic acid (OA). The as-prepared CsPbBr3 IPQD/CNC hybrid paper-like films are highly stable and the relative photoluminescence (PL) intensity can be maintained at 92% under continuous UV light (306 nm, 15 W) illumination for 130 h, >99% at high temperature (100 °C) for 130 h, and >99% in ambient conditions for 15 d. Additionally, the PLQY and FWHM of IPQD/CNC are 45.69% and 22 nm, respectively. The ultrahigh stability and narrow FWHM characteristics proposed here for IPQD/CNC hybrid films can provide new possibilities for practical applications in the future development of IPQD-related devices.