Schizophrenia is associated with increased resting-state large-scale functional network connectivity in the gamma frequency. High-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS) modulates gamma-band endogenous neural oscillations in healthy individuals through the application of low-amplitude electrical noises. Yet, it is unclear if hf-tRNS can modulate gamma-band functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia. We performed a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial to contrast hf-tRNS (N = 17) and sham stimulation (N = 18) for treating negative symptoms in 35 schizophrenia patients. Short continuous currents without neuromodulatory effects were applied in the sham group to mimic real-stimulation sensations. We used electroencephalography to investigate if a five-day, twice-daily hf-tRNS protocol modulates gamma-band (33–45 Hz) functional network connectivity in schizophrenia. Exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) was used to compute intra-cortical activity from regions within the default mode network (DMN) and fronto-parietal network (FPN), and functional connectivity was computed using lagged phase synchronization. We found that hf-tRNS reduced gamma-band within-DMN and within-FPN connectivity at the end of stimulation relative to sham stimulation. A trend was obtained between the change in within-FPN functional connectivity from baseline to the end of stimulation and the improvement of negative symptoms at the one-month follow-up (r = −0.49, p = 0.055). Together, our findings suggest that hf-tRNS has potential as a network-level approach to modulate large-scale functional network connectivity pertaining to negative symptoms of schizophrenia.