In the era of Industry 4.0, the industrial internet of things (IIoT) is expected to transform traditional manufacturing. Machine vision, as the key enabling technology, can reduce maintenance and costs and improve production efficiency. This paper proposes an innovative machine vision system that uses the Gigabit Modbus user datagram protocol fieldbus. The protocol uses hardware and cross-layer function controllers to achieve edge computing with real-time image transmission. Results demonstrated that our innovative high-performance industrial machine vision solution can meet the requirements of IIoT applications. Moreover, the system considerably reduces the real-time response time and has superior usability compared with existing Ethernet fieldbus solutions.