TY - JOUR

T1 - Fluctuations-Induced Quantum Radiation and Reaction from an Atom in a Squeezed Quantum Field

AU - Bravo, Matthew

AU - Hsiang, Jen Tsung

AU - Hu, Bei Lok

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

PY - 2023/6

Y1 - 2023/6

N2 - In this third of a series on quantum radiation, we further explore the feasibility of using the memories (non-Markovianity) kept in a quantum field to decipher certain information about the early universe. As a model study, we let a massless quantum field be subjected to a parametric process for a finite time interval such that the mode frequency of the field transits from one constant value to another. This configuration thus mimics a statically-bounded universe, where there is an ‘in’ and an ‘out’ state with the scale factor approaching constants, not a continuously evolving one. The field subjected to squeezing by this process should contain some information of the process itself. If an atom is coupled to the field after the parametric process, its response will depend on the squeezing, and any quantum radiation emitted by the atom will carry this information away so that an observer at a much later time may still identify it. Our analyses show that (1) a remote observer cannot measure the generated squeezing via the radiation energy flux from the atom because the net radiation energy flux is canceled due to the correlation between the radiation field from the atom and the free field at the observer’s location. However, (2) there is a chance to identify squeezing by measuring the constant radiation energy density at late times. The only restriction is that this energy density is of the near-field nature and only an observer close to the atom can use it to unravel the information of squeezing. The second part of this paper focuses on (3) the dependence of squeezing on the functional form of the parametric process. By explicitly working out several examples, we demonstrate that the behavior of squeezing does reflect essential properties of the parametric process. Actually, striking features may show up in more complicated processes involving various scales. These analyses allow us to establish the connection between properties of a squeezed quantum field and details of the parametric process which performs the squeezing. Therefore, (4) one can construct templates to reconstitute the unknown parametric processes from the data of measurable quantities subjected to squeezing. In a sequel paper these results will be applied to a study of quantum radiations in cosmology.

AB - In this third of a series on quantum radiation, we further explore the feasibility of using the memories (non-Markovianity) kept in a quantum field to decipher certain information about the early universe. As a model study, we let a massless quantum field be subjected to a parametric process for a finite time interval such that the mode frequency of the field transits from one constant value to another. This configuration thus mimics a statically-bounded universe, where there is an ‘in’ and an ‘out’ state with the scale factor approaching constants, not a continuously evolving one. The field subjected to squeezing by this process should contain some information of the process itself. If an atom is coupled to the field after the parametric process, its response will depend on the squeezing, and any quantum radiation emitted by the atom will carry this information away so that an observer at a much later time may still identify it. Our analyses show that (1) a remote observer cannot measure the generated squeezing via the radiation energy flux from the atom because the net radiation energy flux is canceled due to the correlation between the radiation field from the atom and the free field at the observer’s location. However, (2) there is a chance to identify squeezing by measuring the constant radiation energy density at late times. The only restriction is that this energy density is of the near-field nature and only an observer close to the atom can use it to unravel the information of squeezing. The second part of this paper focuses on (3) the dependence of squeezing on the functional form of the parametric process. By explicitly working out several examples, we demonstrate that the behavior of squeezing does reflect essential properties of the parametric process. Actually, striking features may show up in more complicated processes involving various scales. These analyses allow us to establish the connection between properties of a squeezed quantum field and details of the parametric process which performs the squeezing. Therefore, (4) one can construct templates to reconstitute the unknown parametric processes from the data of measurable quantities subjected to squeezing. In a sequel paper these results will be applied to a study of quantum radiations in cosmology.

KW - fluctuations-induced quantum radiation

KW - non-Markovianity

KW - parametric creation of particles

KW - radiation reaction

KW - squeezed state

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85163579522&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/physics5020040

DO - 10.3390/physics5020040

M3 - 期刊論文

AN - SCOPUS:85163579522

SN - 2624-8174

VL - 5

SP - 554

EP - 589

JO - Physics (Switzerland)

JF - Physics (Switzerland)

IS - 2

ER -