A rapid and ultrasensitive biosensing method based on fiber optic nanogold-linked immunosorbent assay is reported. The method employs an immobilized capture probe on the fiber core surface of an optical fiber and a detection probe conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a solution. Introduction of a sample containing an analyte and the detection probe into a biosensor chip leads to the formation of a sandwich-like complex of capture probe−analyte−detection probe on the fiber core surface, through which nanoplasmonic absorption of the fiber optic evanescent wave occurs. The performance of this method has been evaluated by its application to the detection of procalcitonin (PCT), an important biomarker for sepsis. In this study, anti-PCT capture antibody is functionalized on an unclad segment of an optical fiber to yield a fiber sensor and anti-PCT detection antibody is conjugated to AuNPs to afford nanoplasmonic probes. The method provides a wide linear response range from 1 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL (5 orders) and an extremely low limit of detection of 95 fg/mL (7.3 fM) for PCT. In addition, the method shows a good correlation in determining PCT in blood plasma with the clinically validated electrochemiluninescent immunoassay. Furthermore, the method is quick (analysis time ≤15 min), requires low-cost instrumentation and sensor chips, and is also potentially applicable to the detection of many other biomarkers.