Concept maps can be used as a cognitive tool to assist learners' knowledge construction. However, in a concept map-based online discussion environment, studies that take into consideration learners' manipulative actions of composing concept maps, cognitive process among learners' discussion, and social knowledge construction at the same time are still lacking. Therefore, this study employed lag sequential analysis to empirically explore learners' behavioral patterns in a concept map-based online discussion environment. We explored learners' operations in the concept map tool, and their discussion behavioral patterns of cognitive processing phases and social knowledge construction. The results showed that it was easier for learners to define a node than to define a relationship when they used the concept map. Additionally, the concept map can enhance higher level cognitive processing phases and lead learners to return to the main discussions from off-topic discussions significantly.