This study introduced satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) in land use regression (LUR) modeling to predict ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and its elemental composition. Twenty-four daily samples were collected from 17 air quality monitoring sites (N = 408) in Taiwan in 2014. A total of 12 annual LUR models were developed for PM2.5 and 11 elements, including aluminum, calcium, chromium, iron, potassium, manganese, sulfur, silicon, titanium, vanadium, and zinc. After applied AOD and a derived-predictor, AOD percentage, in modeling, the number of models with leave-one-out cross-validation R2 > 0.40 significantly increased from 5 to 9, indicating the substantial benefits for the construction of spatial prediction models. Sensitivity analyses of using data stratified by PM2.5 concentrations revealed that the model performances were further improved in the high pollution season.