Electromigration-induced back stress in critical solder length for three-dimensional integrated circuits

Y. T. Huang, H. H. Hsu, Albert T. Wu

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻期刊論文同行評審

11 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)


Because of the miniaturization of electronic devices, the reliability of electromigration has become a major concern when shrinking the solder dimensions in flip-chip joints. Fast reaction between solders and electrodes causes intermetallic compounds (IMCs) to form, which grow rapidly and occupy entire joints when solder volumes decrease. In this study, U-grooves were fabricated on Si chips as test vehicles. An electrode-solder-electrode sandwich structure was fabricated by using lithography and electroplating. Gaps exhibiting well-defined dimensions were filled with Sn3.5Ag solders. The gaps between the copper electrodes in the test sample were limited to less than 15 μm to simulate microbumps. The samples were stressed at various current densities at 100 C, 125 C, and 150 C. The morphological changes of the IMCs were observed, and the dimensions of the IMCs were measured to determine the kinetic growth of IMCs. Therefore, this study focused on the influence of back stress caused by microstructural evolution in microbumps.

期刊Journal of Applied Physics
出版狀態已出版 - 21 1月 2014


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