TY - JOUR

T1 - Electromagnetic and gravitational radiation in all dimensions

T2 - A classical field theory treatment

AU - Chu, Yi Zen

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Physical Society.

PY - 2021/10/15

Y1 - 2021/10/15

N2 - How long does a light bulb shine in odd dimensional flat spacetimes, according to a distant observer? This question is nontrivial because electromagnetic and gravitational waves, despite being comprised of massless particles, can develop tails; they travel inside the light cone. To this end, I attempt to close a gap in the literature by first deriving, strictly within classical field theory, the real-time electromagnetic dipole and gravitational quadrupole energy and angular momentum radiation formulas in all relevant dimensions. The even-dimensional case, where massless signals travel strictly on the null cone, depends on the time derivatives of the dipoles and quadrupoles solely at retarded time, whereas the odd-dimensional ones involve an integral over their retarded histories. Despite the propagation of light inside the null cone, however, I argue that a monochromatic light bulb of some intrinsic duration in odd dimensions remains approximately the same apparent duration to a distant detector, though the tail effect does produce a phase shift and adds to the signal several transitory nonoscillatory inverse square roots in time. Analogous remarks apply to a distant gravitational wave detector hearing from a finite duration quasiperiodic quadrupole source.

AB - How long does a light bulb shine in odd dimensional flat spacetimes, according to a distant observer? This question is nontrivial because electromagnetic and gravitational waves, despite being comprised of massless particles, can develop tails; they travel inside the light cone. To this end, I attempt to close a gap in the literature by first deriving, strictly within classical field theory, the real-time electromagnetic dipole and gravitational quadrupole energy and angular momentum radiation formulas in all relevant dimensions. The even-dimensional case, where massless signals travel strictly on the null cone, depends on the time derivatives of the dipoles and quadrupoles solely at retarded time, whereas the odd-dimensional ones involve an integral over their retarded histories. Despite the propagation of light inside the null cone, however, I argue that a monochromatic light bulb of some intrinsic duration in odd dimensions remains approximately the same apparent duration to a distant detector, though the tail effect does produce a phase shift and adds to the signal several transitory nonoscillatory inverse square roots in time. Analogous remarks apply to a distant gravitational wave detector hearing from a finite duration quasiperiodic quadrupole source.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85118549046&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.104.084074

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.104.084074

M3 - 期刊論文

AN - SCOPUS:85118549046

SN - 2470-0010

VL - 104

JO - Physical Review D

JF - Physical Review D

IS - 8

M1 - A28

ER -