Human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) are promising cellular sources for bone healing. The acceleration of their differentiation should be beneficial to their clinical application. Therefore, a conductive polypyrrole (PPy)-made electrical stimulation (ES) device was fabricated to provide direct-current electric field (DCEF) treatment, and its effect on osteo-differentiation of hDPSCs was investigated in this study. To determine the optimal treating time, electrical field of 0.33 V/cm was applied to hDPSCs once for 4 h on different days after the osteo-induction. The alizarin red S staining results suggested that ES accelerated the mineralization rates of hDPSCs. The quantification analysis results revealed a nearly threefold enhancement in calcium deposition by ES at day 0, 2, and 4, whereas the promotion effect in later stages was in vain. To determine the ES-mediated signaling pathway, the expression of genes in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and related receptors were quantified using qPCR. In the early stages of osteo-differentiation, the mRNA levels of BMP2, BMP3, BMP4, and BMP5 were increased significantly in the ES groups, indicating that these genes were involved in the specific signaling routes induced by ES. We are the first using DCEF to improve the osteo-differentiation of hDPSCs, and our results promise the therapeutic applications of hDPSCs on cell-based bone tissue engineering.