Anthropogenic activities have significantly reshaped the environmental landscape and altered land composition, thereby negatively affecting the structures and functions of ecosystem. Paradoxically, complex conditions and procedures of ecosystem operations generate a range of goods and services on which humans rely upon to thrive. This study examines the land-use transition and ecosystem service value changes in Nha Trang, Vietnam in order to understand and quantify the impacts of urbanisation patterns on ecosystems. Changes in the value of ecosystem services were acquired based on modified value coefficients from previous studies and land-use/land-cover information derived from Landsat satellite imagery in the years 1990, 2000, 2011, and 2020. The results show a significant decrease in ecosystem service value associated with the expansion and densification of urban areas over the past 30 years. Total annual value increased from 148.7 million USD in 1990–172.2 million USD in 2000 due to the success of forest rehabilitation efforts, followed by a decline to 149.3 million USD in 2020 because of the rapid development of urban agglomeration at the expense of cultivated land. Drawing from the outcomes, we suggest that the priority of regional land-use planning should be given to ecosystem-based approaches rather than inadequate urban expansion. Hence, guidelines to incorporate the ecosystem service concept into urban planning are proposed to promote climate-resilient city management and sustainable development.