The transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), such as bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), has shown beneficial effects in protecting transplanted tissues and cells against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can also be used to generate hMSCs with stable characteristics without limitations. Therefore, we differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs, H-M5) and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, H9) into hMSCs on dishes coated with different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to study the effect of cell culture biomaterials on hPSC differentiation into hMSCs. hPSC-derived MSCs cultured on Matrigel (MAT)-coated, collagen (COL)-coated and laminin-521 (LN-521)-coated tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) dishes showed excellent proliferation speed and reduced aging over 10 passages. High MSC surface marker (CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105) expression was also observed on hPSC-derived MSCs cultured on MAT-coated, COL-coated and LN-521-coated TCP dishes as well as uncoated TCP dishes. Analysis of late osteogenic differentiation by evaluation of mineral deposition revealed that hPSC-derived MSCs cultured on fibronectin (FN)-coated and LN-521-coated TCP dishes showed high osteogenic differentiation. ECM proteins are effective as coating materials on cell culture biomaterials to regulate the proliferation and differentiation fate of hPSC-derived MSCs.