Early Prediction of Functional Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke Using Unstructured Clinical Text: Retrospective Cohort Study

Sheng Feng Sung, Cheng Yang Hsieh, Ya Han Hu

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻期刊論文同行評審


Background: Several prognostic scores have been proposed to predict functional outcomes after an acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Most of these scores are based on structured information and have been used to develop prediction models via the logistic regression method. With the increased use of electronic health records and the progress in computational power, data-driven predictive modeling by using machine learning techniques is gaining popularity in clinical decision-making. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether machine learning models created by using unstructured text could improve the prediction of functional outcomes at an early stage after AIS. Methods: We identified all consecutive patients who were hospitalized for the first time for AIS from October 2007 to December 2019 by using a hospital stroke registry. The study population was randomly split into a training (n=2885) and test set (n=962). Free text in histories of present illness and computed tomography reports was transformed into input variables via natural language processing. Models were trained by using the extreme gradient boosting technique to predict a poor functional outcome at 90 days poststroke. Model performance on the test set was evaluated by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: The AUCs of text-only models ranged from 0.768 to 0.807 and were comparable to that of the model using National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (0.811). Models using both patient age and text achieved AUCs of 0.823 and 0.825, which were similar to those of the model containing age and NIHSS scores (0.841); the model containing preadmission comorbidities, level of consciousness, age, and neurological deficit (PLAN) scores (0.837); and the model containing Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) scores (0.840). Adding variables from clinical text improved the predictive performance of the model containing age and NIHSS scores, the model containing PLAN scores, and the model containing ASTRAL scores (the AUC increased from 0.841 to 0.861, from 0.837 to 0.856, and from 0.840 to 0.860, respectively). Conclusions: Unstructured clinical text can be used to improve the performance of existing models for predicting poststroke functional outcomes. However, considering the different terminologies that are used across health systems, each individual health system may consider using the proposed methods to develop and validate its own models.

期刊JMIR Medical Informatics
出版狀態已出版 - 1 2月 2022


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