Dynamic electrowetting on nanostructured silicon surfaces is demonstrated as an effective method for improving detection sensitivity in matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Without electrowetting, silicon surfaces comprising dense fields of oriented nanofilaments are shown to provide efficient ion generation and high spectral peak intensities for deposited peptides bound to the nanofilaments through hydrophobic interactions. By applying an electrical bias to the silicon substrate, the surface energy of the oxidized nanofilaments can be dynamically controlled by electrowetting, thereby allowing aqueous buffer to penetrate deep into the nanofilament matrix. The use of electrowetting is shown to result in enhanced interactions between deposited peptides and the nanofilament silicon surface, with improved signal-to-noise ratio for detected spectral peaks. An essential feature contributing to the observed performance enhancement is the open-cell nature of the nanofilament surfaces, which prevents air from becoming trapped within the pores and limiting solvent penetration during electrowetting. The combination of nanofilament silicon and dynamic electrowetting is shown to provide routine detection limits on the order of several attomoles for a panel of model peptides.