Traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) pose a serious health hazard for residents and commuters in urban areas. In this study, a real-time mobile monitoring system was deployed in Taipei, a typical East Asian city with an overlap of high population density, traffic, and special structures (e.g., viaducts), to capture the on-road TRAPs at different times of the day. In general, black carbon, ultrafine particles (UFPs), CO concentrations, and lung deposition surface area (LDSA) were positively correlated with traffic flow, and for PM2.5, a more independent fluctuating concentration was observed. During rush-hour periods, the mean concentrations of UFPs, PM2.5, and LDSA were 6.12 × 104 ± 3.83 × 104 cm−3, 23 ± 8 μg/m3, and 2.29 × 102 ± 1.20 × 102 μm2/cm3, respectively. Additionally, the UFP number concentration and LDSA were two times higher along the high-traffic commuting route than along the lower traffic route. Pollutants tended to accumulate at sites near viaducts and high buildings and were significantly influenced by vehicle composition. In this study, the ratio of LDSA to total particle surface area concentration was used as an indicator of the degree of particle irregularity, which was directly related to aging during transport.