In this study, static and dynamic analyses of a spur gear pair with linear tip relief and longitudinal crowning were performed. Dynamic experiments were conducted to compare and verify the dynamic analysis results. On the basis of the theory of gearing, the mathematical model of a modified spur gear pair was established. In addition, a finite element mesh generation program was developed according to the mathematical model. Finite element analysis was applied to calculate the contact stress, contact patterns, and mesh stiffness of the gear pair. Moreover, a dynamic analysis was performed to predict the dynamic transmission error (DTE) at various speeds and loads. Dynamic experiments were performed on the spur gear pair by using a gear dynamic tester. Accelerometers were mounted on the gear pair to record the vibrations during gear meshing. The experimental DTE was calculated and compared with the simulated DTE to verify the prediction of the vibration performance of the spur gear pair under different rotational conditions.