The investigations of groundwater hydrograph reasonably reflect the aquifer response to recharge–discharge phenomenon and its characteristics. A better understanding of aquifer characteristics such as regional aquifer classification, recharge and discharge patterns, aquifer geology and flow patterns are the surface indicators that may be more effective and less costly for interpreting basic regional hydrogeological conditions and assessments. This study deals with the application of Hierarchical Clustering Analysis to understand the groundwater spatio-temporal patterns and to visualize/classify the nature of the aquifer in the regional area of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Ground-water level fluctuation patterns and slopes of rising and recession limbs are used to identify the pumping effects and classify aquifers. The results of clustering analysis show that the groundwater observation wells in the study area can be divided into five major characteristics along with the upstream to downstream of Kaoping River. The clusters are consistent with basic lithology distribution and age of sedimentary, which represents the characteristics of groundwater level fluctua-tion. The identified groundwater hydrographs patterns provide newer insights related to aquifer response to recharge–discharge phenomenon, types of aquifers and their behaviors. The knowledge of water level fluctuations in the observation wells provides a piece of prior information about the abstraction of groundwater. The proposed aquifer classification and pumping effect have great potential for applied use in groundwater management e.g., save drilling cost.