A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on 3.49×105 antiproton events and 2.42×109 proton events. The fluxes and flux ratios of charged elementary particles in cosmic rays are also presented. In the absolute rigidity range ∼60 to ∼500 GV, the antiproton p, proton p, and positron e+ fluxes are found to have nearly identical rigidity dependence and the electron e- flux exhibits a different rigidity dependence. Below 60 GV, the (p/p), (p/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios each reaches a maximum. From ∼60 to ∼500 GV, the (p/p), (p/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios show no rigidity dependence. These are new observations of the properties of elementary particles in the cosmos.