The Mekong Delta is the most important rice bowl of Vietnam because it provides employment and food for large populations of this country. Monitoring rice-cropping activities is thus vital for evaluating crop management practices. This study aimed to develop an approach for rice crop mapping in the region with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data during 2009-2010 cropping seasons. The data were processed through three main steps: (1) constructing smooth time-series enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), (2) mapping rice cropping patterns based on information of rice crop phenology and field survey data, and (3) error analysis using the ground reference data. The comparison between the classification map and the ground reference data indicated the overall accuracy of 76.8% and Kappa coefficient of 0.7. These results were reaffirmed by a close correlation between the MODIS-derived rice area and rice area statistics at the provincial level (R2 = 0.94). The results obtained from this study could be useful for agriculturalists to seasonally evaluate their crop management practices in regarding to how to formulate a better crop management strategy.