An adaptive spectral moments estimation technique has been developed for analyzing the Doppler spectra of the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar signals. The technique, implemented with the MST radar at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79°E), is based on certain criteria, set up for the Doppler window, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and wind shear parameters, which are used to adaptively track the signal in the range-Doppler spectral frame. Two cases of radar data, one for low and the other for high SNR conditions, have been analyzed and the results are compared with those from the conventional method based on the strongest peak detection in each range gate. The results clearly demonstrate that by using the adaptive method the height coverage can be considerably enhanced compared to the conventional method. For the low SNR case, the height coverage for the adaptive and conventional methods is about 22 and 11 km, respectively; the corresponding heights for the high SNR case are 24 and 13 km. To validate the results obtained through the adaptive method, the velocity profile is compared with global positioning system balloon sounding (GPS sonde) observations. The results of the adaptive method show excellent agreement with the GPS sonde measured wind speeds and directions throughout the height profile. To check the robustness and reliability of the adaptive algorithm, data taken over a diurnal cycle at 1-h intervals were analyzed. The results demonstrate the reliability of the algorithm in extracting wind profiles that are self-consistent in time. The adaptive method is thus found to be of considerable advantage over the conventional method in extracting information from the MST radar signal spectrum, particularly under low SNR conditions that are free from interference and ground clutter.