Objective: Primary aldosteronism is the most frequent cause of secondary hypertension and is associated with more prominent left ventricular hypertrophy and increased myocardial fibrosis. However, the reversibility of cardiac fibrosis is still unclear. Our objective was to investigate myocardial fibrosis in primary aldosteronism patients and its change after surgery. Method: We prospectively analyzed 20 patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) who received adrenalectomy from December 2006 to October 2008 and 20 patients with essential hypertension were enrolled as the control group. Plasma carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PICP) determination and echocardiography including ultrasonic tissue characterization by cyclic variation of integrated backscatter (CVIBS) were performed in both groups and 1 year after operation in the APA group. Results: APA patients had significantly higher SBP and DBP, higher plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), higher aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR), lower serum potassium levels, and lower plasma renin activity (PRA) than patients with essential hypertension. In echocardiography, APA patients had a higher left ventricular mass index than essential hypertension patients. APA patients had significantly lower CVIBS (6.2±1.5 vs. 8.7±2.0dB, P<0.001) and higher plasma PICP levels (107±27 vs. 85±24μg/l, P=0.009) than essential hypertension patients. In the correlation study, CVIBS is correlated with log-transformed PRA and log-transformed ARR and PICP is correlated with log-transformed PRA, log-transformed PAC, and log-transformed ARR. One year after adrenalectomy, CVIBS increased significantly (6.2±1.5 to 7.3±1.7dB, P=0.033) and plasma PICP levels decreased (107±27 vs. 84±28μg/l, P=0.026). Conclusion: Increases in collagen content in the myocardium of APA patients may be reversed by adrenalectomy.