Recent developments in research on the stability of proteins - specifically, comparisons of the ion pairs of homologous structures - show that ion pairs potentially contribute to the thermostability of proteins. This study proposes a probabilistic Bayesian statistical method to efficiently predict the thermostability of proteins based on the properties of ion pairs. The experimental results suggest that the numbers, types and bond lengths of ion pairs can be used to predict with high accuracy (up to 80%) the thermostability of functionally similar proteins. The predictions have high precision (99%), especially for hyperthermophilic proteins. Results for proteins with differing functions also indicate that the number of ion pairs is related to the thermostability of proteins, and that predictions of thermostability can also be made for proteins with different functions.