Refractive index sensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) promise to deliver high sensitivities. However, these sensitivities depend on the derivative of the monitored SPR parameters near resonance, so this dependency leads to a relatively narrow detection range for refractive index changes. Herein, we introduce an idea to improve the detection range refractive index through a high-contrast-index curved waveguide surrounded with an outer gold ring. The proposed detection technique, based on the output power measurement of the curved waveguide, offers a linear response over an ultrabroad range of the refractive index for a surrounding medium from n = 1 to 2.36. Meanwhile, an theoretically ultrahigh refractive index resolution (RIU) of 4.53 × 10 −10 could be accessible for such a broad testing range, available for both gas and aqueous chemical sample refractive indices Furthermore, the power detection approach enables an integrated photodetector for a lab-on-chip sensor platform, revealing a high potential for a multifunctional, compact, and highly sensitive sensor-on-chip device.