Word Integration and Regression Programming During Reading: A Test of the E-Z Reader 10 Model

Albrecht W. Inhoff, Seth N. Greenberg, Matthew Solomon, Chin An Wang

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10 Scopus citations


Participants read sentences with two types of target nouns, one that did and one that did not require a determiner to form a legal verb-noun phrase sequence. Sentences were presented with and without the critical determiner to create a local noun integration difficulty when a required determiner was missing. The absence of a required determiner did not influence 1st-pass reading of the verb, the noun, and the posttarget word. It did, however, have a profound effect on 2nd-pass reading. All three words were a likely target of a regression when a required determiner was missing, and the noun and the posttarget word were likely sources of a regression. These results are consistent with novel E-Z reader model assumptions, according to which identification of the noun should be followed by its integration, and integration difficulties can lead to the initiation of a regression to the noun. However, integration difficulties influenced eye movements earlier and later than predicted by the new model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1571-1584
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2009


  • eye movements
  • first-pass reading time
  • reading
  • second-pass reading time
  • word integration


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