Wafer bonding for microsystems technologies

U. Gösele, Q. Y. Tong, A. Schumacher, G. Kräuter, M. Reiche, A. Plößl, P. Kopperschmidt, T. H. Lee, W. J. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


In microsystems technologies, frequently complex structures consisting of structured or plain silicon or other wafers have to be joined to one mechanically stable configuration. In many cases, wafer bonding, also termed fusion bonding, allows to achieve this objective. The present overview will introduce the different requirements surfaces have to fulfill for successful bonding especially in the case of silicon wafers. Special emphasis is put on understanding the atomistic reactions at the bonding interface. This understanding has allowed the development of a simple low temperature bonding approach which allows to reach high bonding energies at temperatures as low as 150°C. Implications for pressure sensors will be discussed as well as various thinning approaches and bonding of dissimilar materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-168
Number of pages8
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
Issue number1
StatePublished - 20 Apr 1999
EventProceedings of the 1998 E-MRS Symposium H: Materials Aspects in Microsystem Technologies - Strasbourg, FRA
Duration: 16 Jun 199819 Jun 1998


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