The variations of resilient modulus with the postconstruction moisture content and soil suction for cohesive subgrade soils were evaluated. In particular, the effects of relative compaction of the subgrade on the suction and resilient modulus were investigated. To simulate subgrade soils at in-service conditions, soil specimens were compacted at various relative compactions and optimum moisture content and then saturated to equilibrium moisture content to test for resilient modulus and soil suction. The filter paper method was used to measure the total and matric suctions of two cohesive soils. Test findings demonstrated that resilient modulus correlated better with the matric suction than with total suction. Matric suction was found to be a key parameter for predicting the resilient modulus of cohesive subgrade soils. A prediction model incorporating deviator stress and matric suction for subgrade soil resilient modulus was established.