Introduction: Phase singularity (PS) mapping provides additional insight into the AF mechanism and is accurate in identifying rotors. The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of PS mapping in identifying AF rotors using data obtained from an automatic ultra-rapid high-resolution mapping system with a high-density mini-basket catheter. Methods: Twenty-three pigs underwent rapid right atrial (RA) pacing (RAP 480 bpm) for 5 weeks before the experiment. During AF, RA endocardial automatic continuous mappings with a mini-basket catheter were generated using an automatic ultra-rapid mapping system. Both fractionation mapping and waveform similarity measurements using a PS mapping algorithm were applied on the same recording signals to localize substrates maintaining AF. Results: Seventeen (74%) pigs developed sustained AF after RAP. Three were excluded because of periprocedural ventricular arrhythmia and corrupted digital data. RA fractionation maps were acquired with 6.17 ± 4.29 minutes mean acquisition time, 13768 ± 12698 acquisition points mapped during AF from 581 ± 387 beats. Fractionation mapping identified extensively distributed (66.7%) RA complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE), whereas the nonlinear analysis identified high similarity index (SI > 0.7) parts in limited areas (23.7%). There was an average of 1.67 ± 0.87 SI sites with 0.43 ± 0.76 rotor/focal source/chamber. AF termination occurred in 11/16 (68.75%) AF events in 14 pigs during ablation targeting max CFAE. There was a higher incidence of rotor/focal source at AF termination sites compared with non-AF termination sites (54.5% vs 0%, P = 0.011). Conclusions: The data obtained from ultra-rapid high-density automatic mapping is feasible and effective in identifying AF rotors/focal sources using PS technique, and those critical substrates were closely related to AF procedural termination.
- atrial fibrillation
- focal sources
- phase mapping
- ultra-rapid high-density mapping